Species of spiders
There are many kinds of spiders in the world. Some of them are living on the surface of the water and some they are living in the land. Spider also can be categorised by to class which are venomous and non- venomous.

The habitat of spiders
Spiders live in almost every habitat on earth. The only places where there are no spiders are the Polar Regions, the highest mountains and the oceans. A few spider species have invaded the ocean's edge, living in the rock and coral crevices of the intertidal zone.

Behavior of spiders and mating
They are many ways of spiders to behave. Different spiders react with different behaviours. Spiders also have their own of mating skills. Some of male spiders will kill themselves for the female spiders.

Here are some beneficial information about the species, habitat, behavior, and mating skills for the spiders for you to know!

Black Widow Spider 
Latrodectus mactans
Size: Body may be up to 3/4-inch in length with the abdomen reaching 3/8-inch in diameter. 
Color: Typically glossy black but may also be dark brown to light brown. Related widow spiders may be brown.
The characteristic red markings on the underside of the abdomen often connect to form an hourglass shape, but this does not always occur. Some specimens may have red-to-orange spots on the top of the abdomen.
The black widow spider is widely feared because its bite results in severe pain that may take several days to subside. Such bites are rarely fatal but small children and elderly persons are at risk.
Black widow spiders construct irregular, scaffold-type webs usually near the ground level. These webs are almost always constructed in a protected site such as among items piled together, beneath boards, in firewood, and between boxes. Newly hatched spider lings climb to high points, release a strand of webbing and are propelled by "ballooning" to new locations. For this reason, buildings may have new spider lings float to it on a regular basis. Most of these do not survive. Black widows eat any insect they can capture. It is not true that the female always consumes her mate after mating, but it does frequently occur. Black widows are classified as dangerous spiders because their bite can cause severe cramping and pain throughout the body. Very young children, the elderly and very ill persons are most at risk for severe reactions to the bite of this spider.
Bites most frequently occur when people are picking up an item under which the spider is hiding or putting on a shoe the spider has crawled into. Many bites are reported in outhouses where the black widow likes to spin her web below the toilet seat. (Be sure to check carefully before sitting down!) Black widows prefer to construct their webs in secluded, protected sites where insects are more likely to show up. Such sites are common in items stored haphazardly in garages or outside. Such clutter creates innumerable spaces suitable for spider harbourage. Keeping boxes and objects stored neatly and away from walls is one step to minimize these spiders in or around a home.
Tips for Control
  • Bites can be avoided by wearing heavy gloves when moving items stored for long periods outside, in garages, in basements or in warehouses.
  • Shoes should be stored inside shoeboxes or shaken vigorously prior to wearing.
  • When webs are visible, inspect carefully before putting your hand down under an object.

       Brown Recluse Spider 
Loxosceles reclusa
Size: May grow to have a body about 5/8-inch in length and a leg span of about one and a half inches in diameter. 
Color: Usually light brown but may be darker in some specimens.
The key identifying characteristics are the six eyes arranged in three pairs at the front of the head area and the fiddle-shaped marking on the back. The brown recluse spider is often called the "violin" spider or "fiddle back" spider because of the distinctive fiddle-shaped marking on top of its cephalothorax (head end to which the legs are attached).
Like most spiders, the brown recluse spider does not seek to bite people. The bite is usually accidental. The spider crawls into a shoe, into clothing or into a bed and a person then puts on the clothing or lies on the spider in bed. The spider, being trapped, has only one defence - and that is to bite. Unfortunately, the bite of this spider produces a nasty result in people, such as open, ulcerating sores. Left untreated, such bites often become infected and significant tissue necrosis can occur. It is always best to seek medical attention, preferably from a dermatologist, if you think you may have a spider bite. This is especially true in areas where brown recluse spiders are common.
Any corner inside or outside is suitable for brown recluse spiders to construct their webs. These spiders are more common in garages, crawl spaces, and basements, as these areas are less disturbed and tend to harbour more insects.
Tips for Control 
If a home has experienced brown recluse spiders, the occupants can reduce the chances of bites by following the recommendations below:
  • Clothing can be stored in sealed plastic bags inside drawers or inside plastic storage compartments hanging in closets.
  • Shoes should be stored inside plastic shoeboxes.
  • Clothes that have been left on the floor, in a clothing basket, or are otherwise exposed should always be shaken well and inspected before being put on.

Cellar Spider 
Family Pholcidae
Size: Up to 3/4-inch in body length with an extremely thin shape. 
Color: Pale whitish or cream.
Their extremely long legs make the spiders appear much larger and give them their nickname of daddy long legs spiders.
Cellar spiders spin large, tangled webs and hang upside down within the web. When disturbed, they shake the web violently. They are not dangerous spiders and actually are quite beneficial in that they have been known to capture and eat other spiders, including even black widow and brown recluse spiders. Once their web becomes old and unusable, cellar spiders construct additional webbing attached to the old web. Over time, considerable amounts of cobwebs can accumulate.
Cellar spiders prefer dark, damp areas, such as crawl spaces, basements, and sheds, although they may be common around doorways, in warehouses, and sometimes in garages of homes.
Tips for Control 
Regular removal of cellar spiders with a vacuum, brush or broom helps limit the numbers of spiders. Other steps may be helpful, including:
  • Sealing cracks and holes in the building's exterior.
  • Installing tight-fitting screens in foundation and attic vents.
  • Using yellow bug light bulbs in exterior light fixtures to attract 
  • fewer of the flying insects on which the spiders feed.


   Crab Spider 
Family Thomisidae & Family Philodromidae
Size: Body is usually less than 1/2-inch in length, but up to one inch in larger species. 
Colour: The crab spider’s colour varies, but most species are brown. Some are brightly colored in yellow, green or even pink, depending on the type of flower they frequent.
Crab spiders are passive hunters that ambush their prey. These spiders wait patiently on plants and flowers for flies, bees, butterflies and other insects to visit, and then they pounce upon the unsuspecting insect.
These spiders prefer to stay outside; they are rarely seen inside. On occasion a single spider will wander into a building searching for prey, or it could be carried inside in potted plants or fresh cut flowers.
Tips for Control 
Crab spiders are not dangerous and are not considered a “home pest.” If you find a single crab spider indoors, you can easily capture and release it. Place a cup over the spider and then slide a piece of paper underneath to trap it within the cup. Turn the cup over while holding the paper tightly over the top. Take the spider outdoors to release it.

Spiny-backed Orb Weaver Spider 
Gasteracantha spp.
Size: The body is ½-inch or less in length. 
Color: A brightly colored spider that has a hard, white abdomen with red markings and black spines protruding from the edges.
The spiny-backed orb weaver spins flat, orb-shaped webs in shrubs, trees and in the corners of windows, soffits and similar outdoor areas of buildings. These spiders capture flying, and sometimes crawling, insects found around a home. They are not dangerous and would easily be overlooked if not for their unique coloration. They do not invade indoors unless carried inside while living in a potted plant.
This spider is common along the southeast coast of the United States and is a regular inhabitant of yards in Florida.
Tips for Control 
Spiny-backed orb weavers are not dangerous and are beneficial animals. They should not be killed if at all possible. In situations where numerous spiders are present, the webs can be regularly knocked down. 

Family Theraphosidae
Size: The largest spider found in the United States and around the world. In this country, the body may measure up to two-and-a-half inches in length with a leg span of up to four inches. 
Color: In the U.S., tarantulas are varying shades of brown from medium to dark. The spiders are very hairy.
Tarantulas are passive hunters in that they wait near their burrows for insects and other spiders to walk past, then ambush their prey. They live in burrows in the soil and beneath items in contact with the ground, such as stones or logs. It is common in the desert Southwest to discover a tarantula burrowed beneath a landscape timber or a flagstone in landscaped beds around homes. They rarely venture far from this burrow, coming out only at night to feed. During the late summer and fall, however, male tarantulas will wander great distances in search of females with which to mate. Occasionally, one of these males will wander into a garage or a home.
The approximately 45 species of tarantulas in the United States are found in the south central and southwest areas of the country. Their range begins in Western Arkansas, extends north into Oklahoma, and west to California.
Tips for Control 
Despite their large size, tarantulas are not dangerous . When discovered, they can be coaxed to crawl into a can or box using a brush, broom or stick to tap them on the abdomen and guide them. Once captured, they should be released into areas away from homes.

Mating season

When spiders mate, the male puts himself in a precarious position: His partner may decide to accept his love offering or kill and eat him.
Approach - The male moves onto the female's web at the same height as the female. Upon entering the web, he begins strumming on the radial spokes, plucking them with his second pair of legs. He moves toward the female, usually in the centre of her orb, while continuing to pluck the spokes.
  • Contact – As he nears the female, the male raises his second pair of legs and begins to wave his pedipalps from side to side.

  • Sperm Transfer – As the female quickly moves toward him, he grasps her raised legs with his legs, and moves slowly underneath her – directly under the "umbrella" of her fangs and legs. He reaches back with a front leg, collects wrapped package of sperm from his genital opening, and places it into the female's genital opening.

  • Danger – From contact to transfer, the male is at the most risk. All the female has to do is to slip from his grasp, drop onto him, and sink her fangs into his body. The male spider. Although only about 1/10th to 1/3rd her size, is able to hold the female away until he can back out from under her. Males of other species are not always as lucky.

  • Escape – Moving out from under the female, the male runs directly upwards until he is off the web and stops several inches above it.


Native-Like Spider Silk Produced in Metabolically Engineered Bacteria

ScienceDaily (July 27, 2010) — Researchers have long desired spiders' ability to manufacture silk that is light-weighted while as strong and tough as steel. Indeed, finer than human hair, five times stronger by weight than steel, and three times tougher than the top quality man-made fiber Kevlar, spider dragline silk is an ideal material for numerous applications. Suggested industrial applications have ranged from parachute cords and protective clothing to composite materials in aircrafts. Also, many biomedical applications are envisioned due to its biocompatibility and biodegradability.